Negation in Nepali Verbs

 

Negation is used to express the opposite meaning of affirmative sentences. Negation in Nepali verbs takes place due to affixation(suffixation and prefixation). The negative case marker न(na) is either prefixed or suffixed with verb roots or verb forms to express negation.

 

Negation due to Prefixation

 

Negation in some verb forms occurs when the morpheme न(na) is prefixed to the verbs. Some of such verb forms are given below.

Table 1: Negation in Nepali Verbs due to Prefixation
Verb Forms Examples
Mood Imperative नलेख(na-lekha),

नजानुहोस्(na-jaanuhos)

Optative नकिनौँ(na-kinau),

नगए(na-gaye)

Potential नआउँला(na-aaula),

नपर्ला(na-parla)

Aspect Perfect नलेखेको(na-lekheko),

नखाएको(na-khayeko)

Imperfect नभन्दा(na-bhanda),

नलेख्दै(na-lekhdai)

Participal Absolutive नखाई(na-khai),

नपठाई(na-pathai)

Conjunctive नभनेर(na-bhanera),

नलेखेर(na-lekhera)

Infinitive नखानु(na-khanu),

नसोध्नु(na-sodhnu)

Purposive नभन्न(na-bhanna),

नलेख्न(na-lekhna)

Conditional नभए(na-bhaye)

नसुने(na-sune)

Perfective नखाए(na-khaye) न

गरे(na-gare)

Prospective नगर्ने(na-garne),

नखाने(na-khane)

 

Negation due to Suffixation

 

Negation in Nepali verbs can also occur due to suffixation of the morpheme न(na) to verb forms/ verb roots. The morpheme can occur either at the end or in the middle of the negated verb.

 

For the following verb forms, negation occurs due to suffixation.

Table 2: Negation in Nepali Verbs due to Suffixation
Verb Forms Examples
Tense Past गरेन(gare-na)

उठेन(uthe-na)

Present खान्न(khan-na),

जान्न(jann-na)

Future पाउनेछैन(paaunechai-na),

हुनेछैन(hunechai-na)

Aspect Habitual जाँदैनथ्योँ(jaadai-na-thyo),

लेख्दैनथी(lekhdai-na-thyo)

Inferential हिँडेनछ(hide-na-cha),

सुतेनछु(sute-na-chu)

 

References

 

A Computational Analysis of Nepali Morphology: A Model for Natural Language Processing

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