by Shreeya Singh Dhakal on Nov. 29, 2017


Negation is used to express the opposite meaning of affirmative sentences. Negation in Nepali verbs takes place due to affixation(suffixation and prefixation). The negative case marker न(na) is either prefixed or suffixed with verb roots or verb forms to express negation.


Negation due to Prefixation


Negation in some verb forms occurs when the morpheme न(na) is prefixed to the verbs. Some of such verb forms are given below.

Table 1: Negation in Nepali Verbs due to Prefixation

Verb Forms

Examples

Mood

Imperative

नलेख(na-lekha), नजानुहोस्(na-jaanuhos)

Optative

नकिनौँ(na-kinau), नगए(na-gaye)

Potential

नआउँला(na-aaula), नपर्ला(na-parla)

Aspect

Perfect

नलेखेको(na-lekheko), नखाएको(na-khayeko)

Imperfect

नभन्दा(na-bhanda), नलेख्दै(na-lekhdai)

Participal

Absolutive

नखाई(na-khai), नपठाई(na-pathai)

Conjunctive

नभनेर(na-bhanera), नलेखेर(na-lekhera)

Infinitive

नखानु(na-khanu), नसोध्नु(na-sodhnu)

Purposive

नभन्न(na-bhanna), नलेख्न(na-lekhna)

Conditional

नभए(na-bhaye) नसुने(na-sune)

Perfective

नखाए(na-khaye) नगरे(na-gare)

Prospective

नगर्ने(na-garne), नखाने(na-khane)


Negation due to Suffixation


Negation in Nepali verbs can also occur due to suffixation of the morpheme न(na) to verb forms/ verb roots. The morpheme can occur either at the end or in the middle of the negated verb.


For the following verb forms, negation occurs due to suffixation.

Table 2: Negation in Nepali Verbs due to Suffixation

Verb Forms

Examples

Tense

Past

गरेन(gare-na) उठेन(uthe-na)

Present

खान्न(khan-na), जान्न(jann-na)

Future

पाउनेछैन(paaunechai-na), हुनेछैन(hunechai-na)

Aspect

Habitual

जाँदैनथ्योँ(jaadai-na-thyo), लेख्दैनथी(lekhdai-na-thyo)

Inferential

हिँडेनछ(hide-na-cha), सुतेनछु(sute-na-chu)


References


A Computational Analysis of Nepali Morphology: A Model for Natural Language Processing


Tags: Nepali Grammar