by Shreeya Singh Dhakal on Jan. 30, 2018


This blog post is the third post in the series 'Derivation in Nepali'. In the previous posts (An Introduction to Derivation in Nepali and Derivation in Nepali: Affixation), we gave a brief introduction to derivations in Nepali and discussed the process of affixation. In the blog post, we'll be discussing another common process of word formation due to derivation call compounding.


Compounding is the process of word formation in which two or more words combine to form new words. A word formed due to compounding is called a compound word (समस्त शब्द) and contains more than on root/stem.


In Nepali, the process of compounding can be divided into six types and they are:

  • Determinative Compound (तत्पुरुस समास)

  • Numeral Compound (द्विगु समास)

  • Appositional Compound (कर्मधारय समास)

  • Adverbial Compound (अव्य्यीभाव समास)

  • Attributive Compound (बहुब्रीहि समास)

  • Copulative Compound(द्वन्द्व समास)


  • Determinative Compound


    A determinative compound is formed when the first word loses its case marker (विभक्ति चिन्ह) when combining with the second root. Such compounds express the meaning of the second root and the meaning of the first word is lost in the process. There are six types of determinative compounds, all of which are listed and described in Table 1.


    Table 1: Determinative Compound

    Type

    Description

    Example

    Independent Form

    Compound Word

    Second (द्वितीया)

    Formed by eliminating accusative (second) case marker: 'लाई (laai)'

    कामलाई चोर गृहलाई त्याग हितलाई कारी

    कामचोर गृहत्याग हितकारी

    Third (तृतीया)

    Formed by eliminating instrumental (third) case markers: 'द्वारा (dwara)', 'बाट (bata)', 'ले (le)'

    रोगले ग्रस्त भोकले मरी मन्त्रबाट मुग्ध

    रोगग्रस्त भोकमरी मन्त्रमुग्ध

    Fourth (चतुर्थी)

    Formed by eliminating dative (fourth) case markers: 'लागि (laagi)', 'लाई (laai)', 'निम्ति (nimti)'

    देशलाई भक्ति बैठकनिम्ति कोठा बाटालाई खर्च

    देशभक्ति बैठककोठा बाटाखर्च

    Fifth (पञ्चमी)

    Formed by eliminating ablative (fifth) case markers: 'देखि (dekhi)', 'बाट (bata)'

    पथबाट भ्रष्ट जन्मैदेखि रोगी पापबाट मुक्त

    पथभ्रष्ट जन्मरोगी पापमुक्त

    Sixth (षष्ठी)

    Formed by eliminating genitive (sixth) case markers: 'को (ko)', 'का (ka)', 'की (ki)'

    जग्गाको धनी धानका खेत जीवनको स्तर

    जग्गाधनी धानखेत जीवनस्तर

    Seventh (सप्तमी)

    Formed by eliminating locative (seventh) case marker: 'मा (ma)'

    वनमा बास कविमा श्रेष्ठ नगरमा प्रमुख

    वनबास कविश्रेष्ठ नगरप्रमुख


    Numeral Compound


    When a numeral adjective (सङ्ख्यावाचक विशेषण) and collective noun (समूहवाचक नाम) combine, a numeral compound is formed. Some of such compounds are given in Table 2.


    Table 2: Numeral Compound

    Independent Form

    Compound Word

    नौ गेडाको समूह आठ आनाको समूह तीन कोणको समूह सात ऋषिको समूह नौवटा रात्रिको समूह

    नौगेडी अठन्नी त्रिकोण सप्तऋषि नवरात्री


    Appositional Compound


    An appositional compound is formed when:

  • An adjective (विशेषण) combines with an adjective

  • A noun (नाम) combines with a noun

  • An adjective combines with a noun

  • A metaphor (उपमा) combines with a word to be compared (उपमेय)

  • An attribute (आरोप) combines with a word to be attributed (आरोप्य)


  • All the independent words forming an appositional compound have equal importance. Types and example of appositional compounds are given in Tabel 3.


    Table 3: Appositional Compound

    Type

    Example

    Independent Form

    Compound Word

    Adjective + Adjective

    रातो + पीरो जान्ने + सुन्ने जेठो + बाठो

    रातोपीरो जान्नेसुन्ने जेठोबाठो

    Noun + Noun

    फुफू + दिदी दाजु + भाइ लोग्ने + मान्छे

    फुफूदिदी दाजुभाइ लोग्नेमान्छे

    Adjective + Noun

    मध्ये + रात दीर्घ + रोग बहु + दल

    मध्यरात दीर्घरोग बहुदल

    Metaphor and Word to be Compared

    चरणरुपी कमल चन्द्र जस्तो बिन्दु हाड जस्तो ओखर

    चरणकमल चन्द्रबिन्दु हाडेओखर

    Attribute and Word to be Attributed

    ज्ञानरुपी अमृत भवरुपी सागर विद्यारुपी धन

    ज्ञानामृत भवसागर विद्याधन


    Adverbial Compound


    An adverbial compound is usually an indeclinable word (अव्यय) formed when two indeclinable words or any other words combine. Some of such compounds are listed in Table 4.


    Table 4: Adverbial Compound

    Independent Form

    Compound Word

    आज + भोलि बिना + पैसा रात + दिन फल + स्वरूप यस + कारण

    आजभोलि बिनापैसा रातदिन फलस्वरूप यसकारण


    Attributive Compound


    An attributive compound is an adjective, which is formed when two or more words combine. An attributive compound expresses a new meaning, which is different from that of the independent words. The types of attributive compound are described in Table 5.


    Table 5: Attributive Compound

    Type

    Description

    Example

    Independent Form

    Compound Word

    सम्बन्धार्थी (Sambandhaarthi)

    Expresses special meaning related to any thing or person, which is different from the meaning expressed by the independent words

    लामा खुट्टा छन् जसका चार कुना छन् जसका बाघलाई चालिन्छ जसमा

    लामखुट्टे चारकुने बाघचाल

    परिमाणार्थी (Parimaanarthi)

    Expresses the quantity of a thing or person

    तीन फुट परिमाण भएको दश गज चौडाइ भएको पाँच हात लम्बाइ भएको

    तीनफुटे दशगजा पाँचहाते

    उपमार्थी (Upamarthi)

    Expresses meaning in comparision to something

    पानको जस्तो बुट्टा छ जसको चराको जस्तो नङ्ग्रा भएको गोबरको गणेश जस्तो छ जो

    पानबुट्टे चरीनङ्ग्रे गोबरगणेश

    निषेधार्थी (Nishedharthi)

    Expresses the denial or lack of something

    विकल्प नभएको थिति नभएको लाज नभएको

    निर्विकल्प बेथिति निर्लज्ज


    Copulative Compound


    Copulative compounds are formed when two or more words connected by a conjunction combine by losing the conjunction. The types of copulative compound are listed in Table 6.


    Table 6: Copulative Compound

    Type

    Description

    Example

    Independent Form

    Compound Word

    समुच्चार्थक (Samuchcharthak)

    Compounding of two simiral words

    दया र माया राधा र कृष्ण शिक्षा र दीक्षा

    दयामाया राधाकृष्ण शिक्षादीक्षा

    विपरीतार्थी (Biparitarthi)

    Compounding of words that express opposite meanings

    दु:ख र सुख साँझ र बिहान लामो र छोटो

    दु:खसुख साँझबिहान लामोछोटो

    विकल्पबोधक (Bikalpabodhak)

    Formed due to the combination of noun, number or verb separated by 'वा (wa)'

    एक वा दुई धेरै वा थोरै भएको वा नभएको

    एकदुई धेरैथोरै भएनभएको

    पर्यायबोधक (Pryayabodhak)

    Formed due the compounding of words that express the same meaning

    इज्जत र प्रतिष्ठा बोली र वचन धन र सम्पत्ति

    इज्जतप्रतिष्ठा बोलीवचन धनसम्पत्ति

    निषेधार्थी (Nishedharthi)

    Compounding of words that express opposite meanings and are spearated by 'न (na)'

    न छेउ न टुप्पो न शिर न पुच्छर न छोरा न छोरी

    छेउटुप्पो शिरपुच्छर छोराछोरी

    एकशेष (Ekshesh)

    A single word produced from the combination of many words

    तन, मन र धन मन, वचन र कर्म

    तनमनधन मनवचनकर्म

    क्रियार्थ (Kriyarath)

    Formed due to the combination of two verbs

    तोड र फोड उठ र बस ढाक र छोप

    तोडफोड उठबस ढाकछोप


    Tags: Nepali Grammar